Thu, 14 Dec 2017

Podcasts

I listen to a lot of podcasts, usually while I'm in the car, but also when I'm doing yardwork and similar solitary tasks. These are the podcasts I listen to.

I break my podcasts into several categories and generally listen to the categories in order. (I listen to all of the news podcasts before starting on the politics podcasts, and so on.) My currently-preferred podcast client, BeyondPod, lets me set up a "smart playlist" that puts everything in the appropriate order automatically every time I update my feeds.

BeyondPod also lets me speed up podcasts. I listen to most of my podcasts at 1.5x playback speed. I can still process the information comfortably, but it gets through them faster. Exempted are more highly-produced podcasts and ones that are really short anyway.

News

First, I listen to my "News" podcasts. These are short and, well, about news. I listen to these in reverse chronological order, so I get the newest news first.

NPR News Now

The NPR News Now podcast is updated every hour and contains a recording of the five-minute news summary they make available to their member stations at the start of every hour. I have BeyondPod update its feeds within an hour of my normal times for leaving home and work, so I always start off my listening with an up-to-date news summary.

Up First

Up First is NPR's podcast version of a morning show. It's hosted by the same people who host Morning Edition, and it's available every weekday morning. It spends about ten minutes discussing two to four news topics in more depth than the hourly news summary can cover them.

WAMU Local News

WAMU Local News is just what it sounds like; short news items from WAMU in DC. (WYPR is closer to me, but the reasons I instead listen and donate to WAMU are a whole other post.)

Politics / Topical

The podcasts in this section are ones that cover topical issues, with a focus on politics. I try to stay up to date on all of their episodes. Sometimes I skip individual episodes in the interest of keeping up with all of them.

1A

I'm a bit on the fence about 1A, hosted by Joshua Johnson. I want a podcast that covers a wide range of relevant topics, particularly politics and cultural issues, and I want to come away from discussions with a sense of understanding the perspectives on all sides of an issue, regardless of whether I agree with them. The Diane Rehm Show used to be very good at that; Diane assembeled good panels for discussion, and she was extremely talented at guiding the discussion for the edification of her listeners. 1A took over Diane Rehm's time slot and covers the same sorts of topics, to a first approximation, so I've been listening to it since its inception.

1A is different in a few ways, of course. The focus of the cultural topics is a bit different, but I generally like the topics covered by the show. I don't think Joshua Johnson is as good a host, though. Diane was good, in my opinion, at guiding her guests to present useful information and perspectives to her listeners. Joshua has often come off as condescending or offputting to his guests, in ways that I don't think have contributed to genuine, useful conversations. (In more than one show he's asked a guest a question that basically came off as him saying, "Do you even understand why people think you're wrong?") I'm a little on the fence about what they've done with the podcast format, too. The radio show is two hours long, with a different topic each hour. For the podcast, they pick one of the two topics and edit that show down to a half hour. If you want to listen to the other show, you have to go to the website; it's not available in a podcast.

I still feel like I'm getting useful information and perspectives from the show, but not to the same degree as I got from the show that previously filled my "topical panel discussion" need. If anyone has suggestions for better podcasts, I'm open to them.

Diane Rehm: On My Mind

On My Mind is the podcast that Diane Rehm has been doing since she retired from hosting the on-air Diane Rehm Show. Every week she records and collects conversations with people where she discusses political or cultural topics. Her new format doesn't really cover the sort of broad, multifaceted discussions that I really liked about her old show, but she's still informative and insightful, so I'm still listening.

The Economist Radio

The Economist has multiple podcasts; I listen to all of them through their "all audio" feed, available at the top of that page. I do skip their "Tasting Menu" episodes; I find the format they use for them jarring. (It consists of one person reading excerpts from an article they've written for the magazine intercut with the host's commentary on the article. It feels like a conversation format where the two people aren't actually talking to each other and I don't like it.)

The Economist has the nice additional benefit of giving coverage of the US from an outside perspective. I appreciate that because pretty much all of the other podcasts I listen to are based on the US.

FiveThirtyEight Politics

The FiveThirtyEight Politics Podcast doesn't have its own page, but you can find it on the FiveThirtyEight Podcasts page. This weekly podcast features concrete, numbers-based discussions about political developments. I really like their approach to trying to understand the population's political opinions by asking them (generally through polls) and trying to fairly listen to the answers.

On the Media

On the Media is a weekly show that discusses how the US--and sometimes global--media is covering (or miscovering or failing to cover) the news, particularly political news. They also tend to discuss free speech and various other things that fall within a similar penumbra

Education

These podcasts are excellent places to learn new things. They're not necessarily as time-sensitive as the ones in my "Politics / Topical" section, so I get to these only when I've caught up on all the topical stuff. I am currently about five months behind on this section.

99% Invisible

99% Invisible discusses the design of things made by humans, with a focus on architecture. I've learned a lot about all sorts of things that people have made from this show.

Radiolab

Radiolab tells stories about science. I've learned a lot from this podcast about new developments in science, obscure but interesting scientific discoveries, and science history. They also do a lot to try to express concepts and atmosphere through audio cues. At least one person I know finds their "bleeps and bloops" offputting and can't listen to them.

Ted Talks (audio)

The TED Talks audio feed is just that: an audio-only podcast of TED talks. I'm a little on the fence about this one. I've listened to some really great talks through this feed, but a lot are just okay or worse. The ratio is not really in the feed's favor. I haven't fully given up on it yet, though.

What's the Point

What's the Point was a podcast from FiveThirtyEight that discussed uses of data in various aspects of our world. One of the early episodes I distinctly remember was a discussion of analyzing traffic data in New York City to optimize traffic flows in Manhattan (including closing a street to improve the traffic). The podcast has ended, but I haven't yet listened to all of the episodes in the feed.

Catching Up

If I ever get caught up on my "Education" category, I have the "Catching Up" category to work on. When I find a podcast that I like and want to listen to every episode of it, I put it in this category. Once I'm caught up on the podcast, it gets moved into an appropriate other category (usually "Education"). 99% Invisible, TED Talks, and Radiolab all started out here.

Intelligence Squared US

Intelligence Squared US holds one or two debates every month on interesting topics, often political ones. Each debate begins with a motion, e.g. "Video games make us smarter." There are two teams in the debate; one argues for the motion and the other argues against. Each team has two members. The debate has three phases: opening statements, answering questions from the moderator and audience, and closing statements. The audience is polled about their opinion on the statement before and after the debate; the side that had the greatest increase in supporters is said to have won the debate. I don't care so much about who wins or loses, but the debates are generally good platforms for understanding opposing perspectives on contentious topics.

Mon, 30 Oct 2017

How to Buy Batteries for Flashlights

Questions about buying batteries come up periodically on the /r/flashlight subreddit. This is the guide I wish had existed when I had those questions. The primary focus of this guide is on batteries that go into flashlights, though some of what's here can certainly be applied to other battery-powered devices.

If you just want to know how to get 18650 batteries, skip down to the Lithium-Ion section. Be careful when buying lithium-ion batteries from marketplaces like Amazon; unsafe batteries abound. See the section for advice on making safe purchases.

Types of Batteries

Batteries can be separated into different types that largely have to do with their voltage. A battery's voltage is determined by the chemical reactions it uses to generate electricity (and occasionally with additional circuitry added to the battery). The usual way we refer to batteries (AA, AAA, C, etc.) specifically references their size, not voltage. Fortunately, for the most part, particular sizes only come in particular voltages. I'll note a few places you might have to take care.

Flashlight batteries generally fall into one of three categories (links go to the sections on each type of battery):

I'm omitting stuff like 9V batteries and 6V "lantern batteries", since they're not used in flashlights to the same degree that the above categories are.

1.5V Batteries (AA, C, etc.)

Flashlights that use AAA, AA, C, and D cells are very common. They're useful because those cells are also very common.

People sometimes refer to these batteries as either "primaries" or, less often, "secondaries". "Primaries" are synonymous with non-rechargeable; you use them and then throw them away. "Secondaries" are synonymous with rechargeable, though people will more often just call them "rechargeable".

The main consideration when choosing 1.5V batteries is the chemistry used inside. There are three common chemistries:

There are rechargeable alkaline and rechargeable lithium batteries, but rechargeable NiMH are the most common at the moment. Nickel-cadmium (NiCd) used to be the most common rechargeable chemistry, but it's been replaced by the NiMH, which is better than NiCd in practically every way.

In most cases, you should get NiMH rechargeable batteries for flashlights that get used frequently. For flashlights that sit and wait to be used (emergency flashlights, bug out bags, etc.), use lithium primaries.

Lithium batteries handle temperature extremes better than NiMH and alkaline batteries, so lithium is also the best choice for things like flashlights that live in cars.

The Wirecutter has recommendations for NiMH AA and AAA batteries and NiMH AA and AAA chargers.

3V Batteries (CR123A, etc.)

3V batteries are common in a number of more niche devices, like cameras. There are a lot of flashlights that use 3V CR123A batteries. Pretty much every 3V battery uses lithium, so everything about lithium in the 1.5V section applies to 3V batteries, too.

The higher voltage lets some CR123A flashlights put out more light than similarly-sized AA flashlights. Aside from that, there's not much to consider about buying CR123A batteries.

The Parametrek battery database lists several CR123A batteries ranging from $1.50 to $5 apiece. On Amazon, Amazon Basics, Streamlight, and Energizer CR123A batteries range from $1.50 to $2 apiece.

Some places sell "RCR123A" batteries, which are basically CR123A-sized lithium-ion batteries. (Specifically, they're 16340 cells; lithium-ion naming conventions are covered below.) Some RCR123A batteries have integrated voltage-regulating circuitry to deliver a constant 3V so they behave just like a regular CR123A. Others do not; like other lithium-ion batteries, they'll be 4.2V when fully charged. If you're going to buy RCR123A batteries, either make sure your device can handle voltage up to 4.2V or check the specs on the RCR123A to see whether it has a 3V output. (Lithium-ion batteries will often be listed as having a 3.6V output or so.)

All of the usage considerations in the lithium-ion section apply to RCR123A batteries, too.

Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries brought a revolution in compact energy storage. They can hold more energy and discharge it faster than any of the common handheld battery technologies that came before them. Lithium-ion batteries are used, in some form, in devices ranging from smartphones to laptops to electric cars.

Lithium-ion batteries supply 4.2V when fully charged. As their energy is drained, their voltage drops. When they reach 2.5V or so, they're considered empty. Although a lithium-ion battery can continue to supply power beyond that point, doing so will permanently damage the battery's chemistry. That might reduce the energy the battery can hold when full or might just render the battery useless.

Lithium-ion batteries are also potentially more dangerous than the other batteries described above. If they get too hot, they can catch fire or explode. Charging and discharging lithium-ion batteries both generate heat, so doing either one too fast can cause a fire or explosion. A short circuit--connecting the positive and negative ends without enough resistance in between--will almost certainly discharge the battery too rapidly. (For people who remember the Samsung Galaxy Note 7 fires, those were caused by unsafe lithium-ion batteries.)

The above doesn't need to put you completely off lithium-ion batteries. They're incredibly useful; you just need to take a little more care with them than other common batteries. Some lithium-ion batteries are more safe than others; that'll be covered below.

You do need to be careful about where you buy your lithium-ion batteries. Many large marketplaces, like Amazon and AliExpress, have unsafe or mislabeled lithium-ion batteries for sale. Because of the dangers of unsafe usage of such batteries, you need to make sure you're getting them from a reputable seller. That will be covered in the buying lithium-ion batteries section.

Some flashlights have built-in charging circuits. If yours doesn't, you'll also need a charger, covered in the chargers section.

Lithium-Ion Names and Shapes

The Lithium-ion batteries that flashlights use--at least, flashlights with removable batteries--are generally cylindrical and are described by a five-digit identifier, like "18650". The first two digits give the diameter of the cylinder in millimeters (mm). The last three digits give the length of the cylinder in tenths of a millimeter. Thus, an 18650 cell is nominally 18mm by 65mm. There's some variation in those values, particularly in the length, but they give a rough approximation.

Some common sizes are:

A number of flashlights allow you to use either an 18650 battery or two CR123A batteries. As with 14500/AA and 10440/AAA, don't do this unless the flashlight manual says you can, since two CR123A batteries in series will give the flashlight 6V.

When speaking, most people break up the five digits of a lithium-ion battery into three groups: xx-y-zz. Thus, "18650" is pronounced "eighteen-six-fifty". ("14500" is usually pronounced "fourteen-five-hundred".)

What You Need to Know About Lithium-Ion Options

With 1.5V batteries, you have just one thing to decide about: the battery chemistry. With lithium-ion batteries, there are four options you need to consider: protection, top shape, capacity, and discharge rate.

If in doubt, you'll probably be okay with protected, button-top batteries of the highest capacity you can afford (ignoring discharge rate).

Protection

Dimensions of plain, button-top, and protected 18650s.

As noted above, lithium-ion batteries should not be discharged below 2.5V or so and should not be discharged too quickly. Many manufacturers take plain lithium-ion cells and add small protection circuits on top. These circuits stop providing power if the battery voltage drops too low or if the current draw gets too high, protecting the cell from things that could damage it. This makes the protected batteries a bit safer, since it's more difficult to accidentally push them too hard.

A protection circuit makes the battery a little longer, and sometimes a little wider. There are flashlights that have so little extra space inside that they must be used with unprotected batteries. Usually such flashlights will have their own low-voltage protection (LVP) and will stop trying to use the battery if the voltage gets too low. If you use an unprotected battery in a flashlight without LVP, you'll have to be careful not to drain the battery too far or you risk permanently damaging the battery.

Protected batteries usually cost a little bit more than their unprotected counterparts, typically in the realm of an extra $1.50 or so.

Some high-powered flashlights need to draw so much current that they can't use protected batteries because they'd trip the protection with their power usage. For those flashlights, make sure you get unprotected batteries with a high enough discharge rate (covered later).

Flashlights that need unprotected batteries should say so on their website and in their manual. If there's nothing about protection, you should be able to use protected batteries (and you ought to do so).

Top Shape

Tops and bottoms of flat top, button top, and protected 18650s.

Lithium-ion batteries, like all other batteries, have a positive end and a negative end. Putting a lithium-ion battery in backwards can damage the flashlight, the battery, or both. In some cases, it can start a fire.

On a plain cylindrical lithium-ion cell, the disk on the positive end is a little smaller than the disk on the negative end. Some manufacturers take bare cells and put buttons on top of them, like the buttons on top of 1.5V batteries. This makes the battery a little longer, but not as much as a protection circuit does. Most unprotected-batteries-only flashlights will still work with button top batteries.

Button top batteries usually cost slightly more than flat top batteries. The extra cost is generally somewhere around ten to twenty cents.

Many flashlights will work with either button top or flat top batteries. Some are shaped so that only a correctly-inserted button top battery will work. This serves as mechanical enforcement of correct battery polarity. If your flashlight takes more then one battery in series, you'll need to use button-top batteries.

Protected batteries pretty much always come with button tops.

In general, any flashlight that works with flat tops will also work with button tops, except for rare cases where the battery compartment spacing is incredibly tight. Consequently, I'd recommend getting button top batteries unless you specifically know you need flat tops.

Capacity

A battery's capacity, most commonly measured in milliamp-hours (mAh), governs how long it can continue providing power. More mAh generally equals more flashlight runtime. Even if you don't expect to run a battery all the way down, keep in mind that as a lithium-ion battery discharges its voltage drops. In many flashlights, that means that a partially-discharged battery can't support the brightest modes on the light. A higher-capacity battery will continue to provide higher voltages for longer periods of time.

As of October 2017, the highest-capacity 18650s being manufactured can store a nominal 3500mAh of energy, though lower-capacity ones go as low as 1200mAh. If all else is equal, you should get the highest-capacity battery you want to spend money on.

Discharge Rate

Depending on their particular chemistry, lithium-ion batteries can have a maximum discharge rate anywhere from 3 amps (A) to 40A. Most flashlights stay under 3A-4A, so pretty much any battery will be fine for them. Some of the higher-output flashlights need or can benefit from 10A, 15A, or even 20A batteries.

There's a tradeoff between battery capacity and discharge. The chemistries that do very well on one metric are not as good on the other. As of October 2017, the best high-capacity batteries store 3500mAh with a maximum discharge of 10A, while the highest-discharge batteries can sustain 40A but only store 2000mAh.

The most-demanding flashlights I've seen top out at about 20A, so you probably don't need to go out looking for batteries with higher discharge rates than that. (Unless you're also using the batteries in your vape or something.) Many people with high-drain flashlights like to use Sony VTC6 or Samsung 30Q batteries; both are 3000mAh/15A.

Some people refer to high-discharge batteries as "IMR" batteries, after a commonly-used chemistry for such batteries.

In general, you should see if your flashlight has a maximum current drain listed. If it doesn't, ignore discharge rate and get the highest capacity batteries you want. Otherwise, get the highest-capacity batteries with a high enough maximum discharge rate.

Other Considerations

There are all sorts of other characteristics that people care about with their batteries, but those are less relevant than the above four things, especially if all you care about is getting your flashlight to work.

There's actually a really complex relationship between batteries' capacity, voltage, and current. Batteries are a little less efficient at higher amperages, so a flashlight that's constantly used on its turbo setting will generally drain its battery even faster than the numerical difference between the light's brightness levels would indicate. Similarly, batteries providing higher amperages will have their voltage drop a bit relative to the same battery with the same charge but at a lower current draw. Different batteries will have different balances among those relationships (e.g. Samsung 30Qs exhibit slightly more voltage sag than Sony VTC6s, even though their top-line ratings are the same).

These sorts of things only tend to matter to people who want to squeeze every last lumen out of their lights, and those are just a small subset of the people who use lithium-ion flashlights on a regular basis. If you're interested in this level of detail, though, you will want to look at HKJ's battery and charger reviews. The website is a little confusing in its layout, but there's a wealth of information about all of the batteries HKJ has tested, and HKJ has tested a lot of batteries.

Where to Buy Lithium-Ion Flashlight Batteries

Don't just go to Amazon, search for "18650", and buy the first search result. There are a lot of cheaply-made and more-unsafe-than-necessary batteries in large marketplaces like Amazon. You should buy from a vendor who will only sell properly-labeled stock from trusted manufacturers.

One of the easiest ways to do that, as well as to search for batteries that match all of the options you need, is to use the Parametrek Battery Database. The person who maintains the database has links to purchase batteries from reputable sellers. For a search example, here's all of the protected 18650 batteries, with the highest-capacity ones first:

Note that to search for capacity, the mAh numbers I've talked about are on the "mAh" category. The "capacity" section sorts by watt-hours (Wh) instead. (The basic difference is that milliamp-hours are only directly comparable for batteries at the same voltage, while watt-hours give meaningful comparisons even between batteries with differing voltages. Lithium-ion batteries are generally marketed with their mAh rating--since the voltage is known--so that's what this guide uses, too.)

If you have questions about a particular battery seller, you can always come ask about it on the /r/flashlight subreddit.

Notes on Particular Lithium-Ion Battery Brands

Unprotected batteries are pretty much all made by LG, Panasonic, Samsung, Sanyo, or Sony.

Some of the more popular brands for protected batteries include AW, EVVA, and Keeppower.

Many flashlight manufacturers have their own branded batteries. Those are generally of good quality, but they're often more expensive than equally-good batteries from other reputable sellers. Some people prefer to pay the extra amount just to avoid trying to figure out whether a particular other seller is reputable or not.

Batteries from Olight are a little unusual. They're a reputable manufacturer (and seller, if you buy directly from them), but they do some extra things to their batteries. The tops of their batteries have a positive button, like any button top battery, but also a negative ring around the button. This is required for the batteries to work in their proprietary flashlight charging cradles, but it increases the chances of short-circuiting the batteries. (The protection circuit should prevent a short-circuit from starting a fire, but it's still not something you want to do to a battery.) Unless you're using an Olight flashlight with an Olight charger, you probably don't want an Olight battery.

Ultrafire batteries should be avoided. They're known to cut corners on their batteries in order to make them cheaper. If you buy one of their batteries, you might get something that works, but you also might get a battery with a defective protection circuit, or a battery that contains a smaller, cheaper battery, and a lot of sand to fill the extra space. Given the care that needs to be taken with lithium-ion batteries, the risk isn't worth the lower prices.

Chargers

If you go with rechargable batteries, you'll need a charger. (Some lithium-ion flashlights have built-in charging, but even with those an external charger can be useful sometimes.)

The best option is to look at the list of chargers reviewed by HJK, pick one with the features you need (number of bays, NiMH, lithium-ion, etc.) and a good rating (two or more smiling faces), and buy it from one of the reputable battery vendors discussed above.

Tue, 25 Jul 2017

Trump and the BSA National Jamboree

My social news feeds are awash with news of Trump's speech at the 2017 National Jamboree (full transcript, full video). I'm disappointed on a few levels, but I'm not leaving the Scouting program.

I was a Boy Scout when I was a kid. I'm currently an adult leader with a Boy Scout troop. I think the ideals and the potential of the Scouting program are good. The short version of Scouting is that we strive to develop kids' citizenship (in the USA, but also in their community and the world), character, and fitness (both physical and emotional). We use a number of tools to accomplish those goals, but the one that most differentiates Scouting from other similar organizations, in my opinion, is what BSA (the Boy Scouts of America) calls "the outdoor program", i.e. all the stuff we do outdoors, including camping, fishing, hiking, and a whole host of other activities.

BSA is not perfect; there are policies they have that I think should be changed, and bad adult leadership in a troop can give the troop's kids a bad experience. But I believe that the core goals and methods of the organization are good, which is part of the reason I am a scout leader. I want to make sure that the kids in my troop have the opportunities to get as much out of the program as possible and have good experiences while doing it.

As part of BSA's focus on citizenship, the President of the United States is considered to be the honorary president of the BSA (though there's a separate actual president who actually runs the national board). Consequently, the US President is always invited to speak at the BSA National Jamboree, an every-four-year camping event that hosts troops from all across the US (and plenty from other nation's Scouting programs, too). Nineteen National Jamborees have been held (including the one currently underway), under twelve different sitting US Presidents (including Trump). Eight of those presidents have spoken in person at a National Jamboree during their term. (Neither Nixon nor Carter spoke at a National Jamboree while they were President. Reagan was scheduled to speak, but was unable to make it for health reasons, so Nancy Reagan spoke in his place. Obama recorded a video that was played at the Jamboree.) The BSA's Bryan on Scouting blog has a history of presidential visits to National Jamborees through Obama.

So whether you like Trump or not, it was reasonable (in my opinion) for him to be invited to speak at this year's National Jamboree, on the basis of Jamboree tradition and in the spirit of developing citizenship in young Scouts.

That said, Trump took a disappointingly political tack with his speech, seeming to treat it as a campaign rally. Officially, the Boy Scouts of America is a non-partisan organization. Everyone should be able to benefit from the skills, knowledge, and experiences available through Scouting, regardless of political viewpoints, so no one should feel excluded because of their viewpoints. Past presidents have focused on non-partisan topics, emphasizing things like community service and being a good citizen, in their Jamboree speeches. Trump had a fair amount in that vein, but he kept dropping in things like his usual digs at the media or complaining that he hasn't been shown enough "loyalty". There was actually a lot of good stuff in his speech, but it seemed like he couldn't avoid making every few paragraphs about himself, in a partisan, exclusionary manner. (Plenty of past presidents used their speaking opportunity to highlight things they saw as personal accomplishments, but they all presented those things as examples of citizenship or service in line with the ideals of Scouting.) He also managed to use language that most Scout leaders would at least frown on, were it uttered by one of their troop members at an event, and referenced apparently risque activities in a fairly approving manner.

I was also disappointed at the members of the audience who went along with Trump's partisan digressions, booing Clinton and Obama while cheering things like the GOP-supported, Democrat-opposed effort to repeal the Affordable Care Act. I'm not actually surprised that Trump treated his speech like a campaign event. It still saddens me, but it's entirely in keeping with his demonstrated character up to now. I had hoped, however, that Scout leaders would understand that sort of partisanship is inappropriate at a Scouting event. It is, of course, hard to tell just how many people were participating, but it was enough that the TV cameras could pick them up.

But despite all that, the instances of angry, divisive speech from President Trump to the Jamboree crowd do not represent Scouting as a whole. I'm sure there were some people in the audience who would be happy chanting "Lock Her Up" at a genuine Trump rally, just as I'm sure that there were among those 40,000 people some who have marched in anti-Trump protests. I think, however, that most scout leaders care primarily about encouraging their kids to be better people without having to pick a political team and without having to shut out anyone on the opposite side.

If you have qualms about Scouting, go visit some troops in your area and see how they work. The scouting program is big and it provides a lot of resources for individual troops, but what defines each one is really the adults and kids in that specific troop. Each troop has its own character. Some are bad environments for youth development, which makes me sad. Some are good environments that maybe just aren't the right fit for your particular child. But most troops are friendly and welcoming, and in most places there should be at least one where your child will feel comfortable and engaged and where there are people who will help your child develop into a healthy citizen of upstanding character.


Phil! Gold